Scientific Name: Lead vanadate chloride

Group: Phosphates

Chemical composition: Pb5(VO4)3Cl

Colors: Orange-red, yellow

Hardness: 3

Formation: Hexagonal crystal; Hexagonal prism form

Principal Sources: Brazil, Mexico, Morocco, Scotland, Namibia, US

Special Notes: Vanadinite is a mineral belonging to the apatite group of phosphates. It is an uncommon mineral, only occurring as the result of chemical alterations to a pre-existing material. It is therefore known as a secondary mineral. It is found in arid climates and forms by oxidation of primary lead minerals. Vanadinite is especially found in association with the lead sulfide, galena. Other associated minerals include wulfenite, limonite, and barite. It is one of the main industrial ores of the metal vanadium and a minor source of lead. Used in steel manufacture, it makes steel strong, hard, and shock resistant.