Scientific Name: Copper carbonate hydroxide.
Chemical composition: Cu2CO3(OH)2
Colors: Bright green; due to copper.
Hardness: 3.5 to 4
Formation: Monoclinic crystal; Massive, botryoidal form
Principal Sources: Democratic Republic of Congo; Australia; Morocco; Arizona, USA
Special Notes: Malachite often results from weathering of copper ores and is often found together with azurite, goethite, and calcite. Except for its vibrant green color, the properties of malachite are similar to those of azurite and aggregates of the two minerals occur frequently. Malachite is more common than azurite and is typically associated with copper deposits around limestones, the source of the carbonate. Malachite was one of the first ores used for the smelting of the metal copper in 4000 B.C. The stone's name derives from Latin: molochtis, Middle French: melochite, and Middle English melochites) from Greek molochitis lithos, "mallow-green stone", from variant of malch, "mallow". The mineral was given this name due to its resemblance to the leaves of the Mallow plant. Archeological evidence indicates that malachite has been mined in Israel's Timna Valley, King Solomon's mine, with few interrumptions for the past 3,000 years.